Lutein Clinical Studies
Chronic ingestion of (3R,3'R,6'R)-lutein and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin in the female rhesus macaque.
Khachik F, London E, de Moura FF, Johnson M, Steidl S, Detolla L, Shipley S, Sanchez R, Chen XQ, Flaws J, Lutty G, McLeod S, Fowler B.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2021, USA.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Dec;47(12):5476-86.
PURPOSE: To investigate how supplementation of the monkey's diet with high doses of lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), or a combination of the two affects the plasma levels and ocular tissue deposition of these carotenoids and their metabolites over time and to determine whether these high doses can cause ocular toxicity.
METHODS: Eighteen female rhesus monkeys were divided into groups of control (n = 3 control), L-treated (n = 5, 9.34 mg lutein/kg and 0.66 mg zeaxanthin/kg), Z-treated (n = 5, 10 mg zeaxanthin/kg), and L/Z-treated (n = 5, lutein and zeaxanthin, each 0.5 mg/kg). After 12 months of daily supplementation, one control animal, two L-treated animals, two Z-treated animals, and all the L/Z-treated animals were killed. The rest of the monkeys were killed after an additional six months without supplementation. Plasma and ocular tissue carotenoid analyses, fundus photography, and retina histopathology were performed on the animals.
RESULTS: Supplementation of monkeys with L and/or Z increased the mean plasma and ocular tissue concentrations of these carotenoids and their metabolites. The mean levels of L and Z in the retinas of the L- and Z-treated animals after 1 year increased significantly over baseline. High dose supplementation of monkeys with L or Z did not cause ocular toxicity and had no effect on biomarkers associated with kidney toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The mean levels of L and Z in plasma and ocular tissues of the rhesus monkeys increase with supplementation and in most cases correlate with the levels of their metabolites. Supplementation of monkeys with L or Z at high doses, or their combination does not cause ocular toxicity.
Dose-ranging study of lutein supplementation in persons aged 60 years or older.
Rosenthal JM, Kim J, de Monasterio F, Thompson DJ, Bone RA, Landrum JT, de Moura FF, Khachik F, Chen H, Schleicher RL, Ferris FL 3rd, Chew EY.
Clinical Trials Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Dec;47(12):5227-33.Erratum in: Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan;48(1):17. de Monastario, Francisco [corrected to de Monasterio, Francisco].
PURPOSE: To examine the dose-response relationship between oral lutein supplementation and serum lutein concentrations in persons aged 60 years andolder, with or without age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
METHODS: Forty-five participants with no AMD, large drusen, or advanced AMD, were randomized to receive one of three doses (2.5, 5, or 10 mg) of lutein for 6 months and to be observed for 6 additional months after the cessation of lutein supplementation. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants (33 women) was 71 years (range: 60-91). The serum lutein concentrations of each dose group were similar before supplementation, increased at 1 month, and peaked by 3 months. Median serum concentrations of the 2.5-, 5-, and 10-mg groups from baseline to month 6 increased from 18.7 to 35.1 microg/dL (2-fold increase), from 17.8 to 59.2 microg/dL (2.9-fold increase), and from 15.1 to 66.8 microg/dL (4-fold increase), respectively (all P < 0.001). The increases in lutein serum concentrations did not vary with AMD disease severity (P = 0.98). No toxicity was observed with any dose of lutein. No significant changes were detected in visual acuity or visual field tests.
CONCLUSIONS: Increasing doses of lutein supplementssignificantly increased the serum levels of lutein and zeaxanthin, and doses up to 10 mg were safely administered. A long-term large clinical trial is necessary to investigate the safety and efficacy of lutein in reducing the risk of the development of advanced AMD.
The effect of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation on metabolites of these carotenoids in the serum of persons aged 60 or older.
Khachik F, de Moura FF, Chew EY, Douglass LW, Ferris FL 3rd, Kim J, Thompson DJ.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Joint Institute for Food Safety and
Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN), University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2021, USA.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Dec;47(12):5234-42.
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of lutein supplementation at doses of 2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/d for 6 months on distribution of these carotenoids and their metabolites in the serum of elderly human subjects, with and without age-related macular degeneration. To determine whether supplementation with lutein can interact with the serum levels of other dietary carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.
METHODS: Forty-five subjects received daily supplements of lutein (containing 5% zeaxanthin) for 6 months and were followed up for another 6 months after supplementation. Blood was collected at various intervals and lutein, zeaxanthin, and their metabolites in the sera were quantified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV/visible detection. Other dietary carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol were identified and quantified on a C18 reversed phase HPLC column. RESULTS: After 6 months of supplementation with 10 mg of lutein, the increases in the mean serum levels from baseline were: 210 to 1000 nM/L (P < 0.0001) for lutein and 56 to 95 nM/L (P < 0.0001) for zeaxanthin. Similarly, the mean concentrations (nM/L) of carotenoid metabolites increased from 49 to 98 (P < 0.0001) for 3-hydroxy-beta,epsilon-caroten-3'-one (3'-oxolutein); 31 to 80 (P < 0.0001) for 3'-hydroxy-epsilon,epsilon-caroten-3-one; and 19 to 25 (P < 0.0001) for epsilon,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-dione. The serum levels of these carotenoids gradually decline within 6 months after supplementation.
CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the serum levels of lutein/zeaxanthin correlates with increases in the serum levels of their metabolites that have previously been identified in the ocular tissues. Elderly human subjects with and without AMD can safely takesupplements of lutein up to 10 mg/d for 6 months with no apparent toxicity or side effects.